8.6 MIN READ
We have all heard the saying that we should not let our emotions get in the way of our financial decisions. However, many people need to realize that this is a genuine discipline known as behavioral finance.
In this article, we will explore behavioral finance, the different pillars that support it, and how it can help you invest more wisely.
Related Article | The Finance Dictionary: Learn the jargon your Finance friends speak!
What Is the Meaning of Behavioral Finance?
Behavioral economics or finance is a relatively new field that integrates psychology and economics to understand why people make financial decisions. It examines how emotions, cognitive biases, and other factors impact financial decision-making.
Traditional finance focuses on rational decision-making, but behavioral finance recognizes that humans are not always rational, leading to suboptimal decisions, even when people act in their best interests.
Behavioral finance can help investors make better choices by considering the psychological factors influencing decision-making. It can also help investors avoid common mistakes, such as succumbing to emotional impulses or allowing illogical reasoning to distort investment choices.
Behavioral finance is still a young field and is constantly evolving. New research occurs, and new theories develop. As we gain more knowledge about how humans make financial decisions, the area of behavioral finance will continue to grow and evolve.
The Five Pillars
Pillars are the different concepts that support behavioral finance.
Herd mentality is the first pillar. People act without knowing what they're doing, causing others to feel like they're missing something and act the same way.
The second pillar is emotional gapping. Emotion interferes with decision-making leading to irrational human behavior.
Anchoring is the third pillar. People become attached to an idea and use it as the basis of decision-making, even where it is not applicable.
The fourth pillar is mental accounting. It is common for people to allocate money in their heads in a way that causes financial irregularities in the real world.
Self-attribution is the fifth pillar. People can perform too much research and base decisions on technical but inaccurate information.
Key Things to Know About Behavioral Finance
People are not always rational. Emotions and cognitive biases can impact financial decisions.
Traditional finance theories only hold on certain occasions. Behavioral finance recognizes that humans are not always rational, and conventional financial approaches may not always apply.
There is a need for more research. While behavioral finance is a relatively new field, there is a need for more research to understand the impact of psychological factors on financial decision-making.
Related Article | Financial Planning for New Parents: 12 Best Tips
The Mission of Behavioral Investing and Finance
The mission of behavioral investing and finance is to improve the financial health of people and institutions by helping them make better decisions.
To promote a better understanding of how psychological factors impact financial decision-making and provide tools and resources to help people make more informed choices.
Improving decision-making can help people achieve their financial goals and improve their overall economic well-being.
Skills You Will Aquire
- An understanding of human psychology and how it impacts financial decision-making
- The ability to identify cognitive dissonance and other factors that can lead to suboptimal decisions
- Tools and resources to help you make more informed choices
- An understanding of the psychological factors that can impact financial decision-making
- The ability to spot cognitive biases and emotional traps
- An awareness of the impact of social influences on financial decisions
- Knowledge of how to use behavioral finance principles to make better investment choices
Behavioral Psychology and Concepts
When looking at behavioral finance, we encounter various concepts that are new to finance. These concepts come from various disciplines, including psychology, economics, and sociology.
Behavioral Finance Theory
Loss aversion is the tendency for people to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring gains. This theory comes from the work of Kahneman and Tversky.
Prospect theory is a way of thinking about how people make decisions under risky conditions. Kahneman and Tversky also developed it as an alternative to the expected utility theory.
Social learning theory refers to people learning by watching the behavior of others and their cues.
Cognitive dissonance theory discusses how people seek to reduce the inconsistency between their beliefs and behavior.
Finally, attribution theory refers to how people attribute meaning to their own and others' behaviors.
Traditional Financial Theories vs. Behavior Finance Theories
Behavioral finance rejects the hypothesis that the stock market is efficient, also known as the efficient market hypothesis. Behavioral finance also questions the assumption that people are rational investors.
Traditional financial theories assume that people are logical investors who make decisions based on unbiased information and risk and return calculations.
On the other hand, behavioral finance recognizes that humans are not always rational and that psychological factors can influence financial decision-making.
Behavioral finance theories offer a more realistic view of how people make financial decisions. These theories can help to explain why people make common mistakes, such as chasing performance or overreacting to bad financial news.
Behavioral finance also considers the role of social influences on financial decisions.
Behavioral Finance Example
Examples of behavioral finance include beginner investors buying trendy stocks without research or safety-minded investors always choosing long-term investments over potentially more profitable short-selling options.
Behavioral finance seeks to improve financial decision-making by correcting these errors due to emotional reactions.
Is It Possible to Be Practical in Financial Behavior?
Yes, it is possible to be practical in behavioral finance. There are three main areas where behavioral finance can help you make better decisions:
- Understanding your own biases and errors in decision-making
- Learning about the impact of social influences on financial decisions
- Applying behavioral finance principles to your investment choices
By understanding your own biases, you can avoid making common mistakes. You can also learn about the impact of social influences on financial decisions. For example, research has shown that people are more likely to take risks when they feel like they're part of a group.
Errors in Decision-Making
There will be errors in decision-making because people are only sometimes rational. These errors can be due to cognitive biases or emotional reactions.
Cognitive biases are judgments people make not based on logic or facts. Emotional reactions are feelings that people have that can cloud their judgment.
Cognitive biases can impact financial decisions. Behavioral finance recognizes that humans are not always rational and that traditional economic theories may not always apply.
Behavioral Finance Biases
Confirmation bias is the tendency to look for data that supports our beliefs and to ignore information that contradicts them.
Experiential bias is the tendency to give greater weight to our personal experiences when making decisions, even if those experiences are not representative of the larger population.
Loss aversion is the tendency to minimize losses rather than acquire equivalent gains.
Familiarity bias is the tendency to prefer familiar investments over less familiar ones, even if the less standard option may be a better investment.
Some emotional reactions can lead to suboptimal investment decisions. However, it is possible to correct these errors using behavioral finance principles to help you make better investment choices.
Overcoming Behavioral Finance
Some of the ways to overcome behavioral finance biases include:
- Being aware of your personal biases and accounting for them in your investment decisions
- Educating yourself about different investment types and not being afraid to try new things
- Doing your research instead of blindly following the advice of others
- Asking for assistance from financial professionals or experts if you feel you are making suboptimal decisions
Investors can make better choices and avoid costly mistakes by understanding and correcting biases that can impact financial decision-making.
Related Article | Mortgage Financing Strategies To Get You Ahead of the Game
These are some common questions that people have about behavioral finance.
Who Started Behavioral Finance?
Daniel Kahneman, Amos Tversky, and Richard Thaler. These three academics applied principles of psychology to finance and economics and are considered the founders of behavioral finance. Kahneman and Thaler won the Nobel Prize in Economics.
Are There Any Successful Behavioral Finance Investors?
Yes, C. Thomas Howard from the University of Chicago and LSV Asset Management is one example of a successful investor.
How Effective Is Behavioral Finance?
Behavioral finance is effective at showing how emotion and biases impact financial decisions. However, some critics argue that the field needs to provide more direction to make investment choices.
What Is the Best Book About Behavioral Finance?
Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman. Kahneman is the only psychologist to have received a Nobel Prize for economics.
How to Earn a Behavioral Finance Degree?
Several universities have accredited degree programs in behavioral finance, including:
- Carnegie Mellon
- The University of Wisconsin
- The Chicago School
How Will Behavioral Finance Help Me?
Behavioral finance will help you understand why financial markets do not always behave rationally and how to take advantage of this.
It can also help you understand your personal biases and how they impact your investment decisions, and behavioral finance can help you earn better returns by avoiding suboptimal choices.
Can Behavioral Finance Help Me With Retirement?
Yes, behavioral finance can help you make better decisions about retirement financial planning by understanding the psychological influences on your choices.
Use empowered refusal. Say "I don't" instead of "I can't." The feeling of control this creates helps people make more rational investment decisions. You may decide to forgo something you want now to save for your future.
Finding Balance With Behaviors and Finance
A balance between oil and water, night and day, or even work and play, is essential for a healthy life. The same is true of our emotions and financial decision-making. Too much of either can lead to suboptimal outcomes.
Behavioral finance studies how our emotions and cognitive dissonance impact financial decisions. It helps us understand why financial markets do not always behave rationally and how we can take advantage of this.
While some critics argue that behavioral finance needs to provide more direction to make investment choices, the field can help us overcome our biases and make better decisions.
Key takeaways: behavioral finance effectively shows how our opinions impact financial decision-making. However, the field is still young, and critics argue that it needs to provide more direction regarding investment choices. Nevertheless, by understanding our own issues, we can make better decisions about retirement planning and other financial goals.